BIRTH OF TURKISH MUSIC
Music creation entered human life before first men started to talk about something. Researchs show that first men started to communicate with others by using rhytm and voices together. After this reaction, with growing of religious rituals, dance with rhytm comes in life. We assume these 3 topics as a first seeds of music.
When we examine Turks in history, because they are nomad community at first centuries, they uses religious musics in their funerals, weddings and religious meetings. They used music instruments named “pipa” and “kopuz”. Turkish classical music was started in old Turkish nomad communities with using kopuz called “bahş-i ozan” says Ordinarius Prod. Fuad Köprülü in his studies about Turkish music life. Göktürks and Uygurs giving high importance to music and they created military bands for their armies. Turks called instrumental music as “Gök” and using only human voices called “lr” or “Dule”.
We can understand how Turks are familiar with music from Chinese travelers too. In recordings of history shows that Turks travelling with their instruments and this is a unique habit of them. This habit grow up centuries and came to our daily life with a human figure goes foreign countries with their unique instruments. This is an important clue that shows, Turks bring their own music from Middle Asia to Anatolia.
When we check Fuad Köprülü’s studies, we reach that Turkish music differs from Arab and Persian culture. In addition to this, after acceptance of Islam, Turkish music cover all islamic countries and replaced with Arab and Persian music.
Turkish Classical Music came from Middle Asia to Anatolia on the broom of Turkish unique instrument “kopuz”. Baglama is advanced instrument of kopuz. Sound systems of brooms are nearly same. This system shows Turkish Classical Music and Turkish Folk Music have same roots and system usage is very common. There is only difference at styling. All two of their sources are same. The other important point for source of Turkish Classical Music, a unique rhythm which has used only in conquered lands of Turks and named “aksak”. If Turks are not in region, you can’t see “aksak” rhtyhm. This voice and sound specifications show that Turkish musics origin is Middle Asia.
After bringing Turkish music to Anatolia from Middle Asia and became systematical, started to develop its academic and scientific version. From 13th century, there are written works come forward about Turkish music. Safiyüddin from Urmiye’s “Şerefiyye” and “Kitab-ül Edvar”, Kutbüddîn-i Şirazî’s “Dürretü’t- Tac”, Abdülkadir Meragî’s “Makasıd-ül Elhan” and “Cami-ül Elhan”, Hızır bin Abdullah’s “Edvar”, Bedr-i Dilşad’s “Muradnâme”, Şükrullah’s “Kitab-ül Edvar”, Mahmut Çelebi’s “Fethiyye” and “Zeyn-ül Elhan” studies are important academical and scientific aproaches to Turkish music. After these works created, because of the languages are Arabic and Persian, in some way people thought Turkish music is Arab music and Persian music but need not to forget that in the region, popular languages are Arabic and Persian in science and art at those centuries. Also in those studies, Turkish words used like “dik” “perde” shows that they are not related with Arabic music and/or Persian music. Detailed information can be found in Hüseyin Sadettin Arel’s “Türk Musikisi Kimindir” study.
(Source: Türk Musikisi Nazariyatı ve Usülleri – İsmail Hakkı Özkan)